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Technological change and societies



Technology is the collective term for a multitude of processes, skills, techniques, and strategies used in the achievement of specific goals, including scientific research, the development of new products or services, or in the production of services or products. The definition of technology was first introduced by Oxford University scholars who defined a technological object as something constructed with technological means and thereby having an added value. In their view, knowledge is the measure of technology, and therefore technology can be defined as knowledge.

Technological Systems: The process of designing and implementing technological systems for particular purposes. Examples of technological systems are telephone networks, postal systems, electronic mail, computer networks, Internet services, digital music production, manufacturing and information technology. The key technologies used by these technological systems are telecommunications, postal systems, computer networks, Internet services, digital music production, manufacturing and information technology. A wide range of social and other organizational systems use technology to function smoothly.

Low-Income Groups: Technology has also contributed to the development of low-income groups. For instance, in Indonesia, primary school children who do not have access to computers and other advanced technologies usually use simple reading materials such as wooden boards, animal bones, rattles, marbles, Chinese chopsticks, palm frond, sandpaper, animal bark, plant fibre, and so on. According to the UNESCO World Heritage site of Arang, a traditionally resource-rich Indonesian island, more than 90% of the people in rural areas are now using digital devices. Also, according to an analysis of the mid-2000s, almost all U.S. middle-income families (with an income of more than $60k per year) had at least one electronic device in their home, which often includes an Internet access device.

Technological Development: The development of new technology has both transformed and threatened the human condition, leading to the development and integration of new systems such as mass production, mass marketing, new modes of communication, and the changing mode of labour. As early as the late 19th century, the industrial revolution created major changes in the lives of everyone around the world. Rapid advancements in technology were then seen in the developing world, especially in China, India, Japan, Pakistan, and the Soviet Union. The consequences of these developments in the developing world have been profound: increased poverty, inequality of opportunity, forced migrations, improved nutrition, occupational hazards, increased illiteracy, and decreased social capital.

Technological Change and Societies: The impact of technology on societies has long been debated by sociologists. For instance, David Walker, author of the influential techno-culture history of the twentieth century, argued that technological change brought about a new division of labour that was then utilized in different ways by different sections of the working class. This led to the creation of two separate classes of workers: the technocrats, who produced the technology that was available to the masses, and the wage earners, who made use of the technology to make available for themselves the goods and services that the technorati could not produce for themselves at a cheaper rate. According to Walker, this separation of the classes was one of the most important aspects of the growth of the middle class in the advanced capitalist societies of the time.

Technological change and its effects also go beyond the economic levels of any country. Linguists have noted that in many societies, including those that are modern and developed in advanced industrial nations, there is a tendency to see technology as the primary agent of change. Technology in this sense is seen as being responsible for the division of labour and how it is used. However, technology is also seen as producing new forms of wealth creation that allow each society to develop and cater to its unique social, cultural, and educational needs. These forms of wealth creation are often not subject to the same constraints as economic activity, for example, the new forms of value creation often come from innovations in Information Technology.

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