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Science And Technology

Developing a Theory of Science of Technology



Science of Technology

Technology is basically the collective term for the accumulated wisdom of human endeavor, of technological systems, and of those techniques, practices, and procedures used in the achievement of specific goals, including scientific, technological, social, and political research. Technological change is a term that is used to refer to the process of innovation, modification, or progress in technology. The discipline of technology studies attempts to capture the essence of technology in its various forms and understandings. It is a growing area of concentration around the world as a number of publications are appearing that cast a critical light on the effect of technology on society. One of the most important contributions of these works is to illustrate how specific changes in technology have affected the organization of the society.

In order to develop a definition of technology, it is first necessary to define it. This is done by a comparative analysis using texts from different disciplines, in order to arrive at a consensus definition. The texts that are used as sources for this process come from fields as diverse as engineering, arts, business, law, medicine, and political science. Some of the most notable contributors to the development of this consensus definition include political science, social science, and psychology. A comparative analysis using texts on technology makes use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. These two methods are used to help derive and compare variable and concept from different texts.

In order to provide a more exact definition, some characteristics of technology that are considered to be important for it to be categorized as applied science are also listed. One of these is the rationality of technological systems, which suggests that a technological system must be both consistent and reliable, providing the means to its users for their desired ends. Another essential characteristic to note is a strongly developed technology concept, which indicates that the technology is a product of human knowledge and application, with these characteristics being present in the systems that the technology renders as well.

A technological system may also meet one or more of the characteristics listed in the previous paragraph. If a technological system satisfies at least one of these characteristics, then it meets the requirements for being a scientific enterprise. However, the list is not complete when only those requirements are listed. For instance, there is a difference between a system that produces energy and one that provide fuel for propulsion. Energy production systems have no real comprehension of how they work, whereas fuel combustion engines have a working understanding. Thus, the list should include other relevant characteristic such as:

When applying the consensus definition of science, scholars have expanded the definition of science to include not only natural phenomena, but also activities or systems that can be observed or detected by a scientific mind. Because of the expanding breadth of this definition, the definition has become known as a theory of scientific knowledge, which suggests that a collection of such theories constitute a theory of scientific knowledge. Theories of scientific knowledge are widely used in education, research, and teaching, though scholars disagree about the value of a theory of scientific knowledge as a form of valid education or assessment. One argument against using a theory of scientific knowledge as an educational tool is that it fails to provide an accurate definition of scientific terms and that it offers no method for validating its claims.

The inclusive nature of the definitions allows scholars to draw on a large body of research to construct and compare technological systems over time and space. Additionally, the inclusive nature of these definitions allows them to include in their definitions many technological phenomena that have been studied historically. This broadness also provides a rich source of examples from which to draw general conclusions about technological change. For example, while some philosophers have argued that technological change tends to be a step in a direction, the definitions of progress to allow for technological systems to be progressive in other ways as well. For example, changes in machine-produced food products have been described as “accelerated progress” by others. Such broadness is important to the successful definition of technological systems.

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